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Secure Tomcat with TLS

Two services comprise Incorta: the Loader Service and the Analytics Service. For TLS setup and configuration, you must secure the Analytics Service.

The default installation path for Incorta is:

/home/incorta/IncortaAnalytics

Before beginning, you must identify the path to the Analytics Service.

  • Identify the Unique Identifier for the Analytics Service as this value comprises the Analytics Service file system path.
$ cat <INCORTA_NODE_INSTALLATION_PATH>/services/services.index
  • Navigate to the Analytics Service directory. Replace with the value found in services.index. If in a cluster environment, the service may be on another Incorta Node host:
$ cd <INCORTA_NODE_INSTALLATION_PATH>IncortaNode/services/<UUID>/

With the directory path identified, you can now secure Tomcat with TLS. Follow these steps:

  1. Create a self-signed certificate to enable TLS access for Tomcat.
  2. Enable TLS in Tomcat.
  3. Use testssl.sh or Firefox to test the TLS connection.
  4. Configure ciphers used for Tomcat.
  5. Identify the ciphers JVM supports.
  6. Configure server.xml to enable TLS with a self-signed certificate (for test purpose only) and test the TLS connection with Firefox.
  7. Enable the Secure Flag in context.xml.
  8. Configure ciphers to remove weak ciphers.

1. Create a self-signed certificate

You can create a self-signed certificate for testing. For live implementations, use a valid server certificate issued by a CA authority.

Use the java keytool to generate and save a self-signed server certificate to a keystore. Tomcat uses this key in a later step.

keytool -genkeypair -help
keytool -genkeypair [OPTION]...
Generates a key pair
Options:
 -alias <alias>                  alias name of the entry to process
 -keyalg <keyalg>                key algorithm name
 -keysize <keysize>              key bit size
 -sigalg <sigalg>                signature algorithm name
 -destalias <destalias>          destination alias
 -dname <dname>                  distinguished name
 -startdate <startdate>          certificate validity start date/time
 -ext <value>                    X.509 extension
 -validity <valDays>             validity number of days
 -keypass <arg>                  key password
 -keystore <keystore>            keystore name
 -storepass <arg>                keystore password
 -storetype <storetype>          keystore type
 -providername <providername>    provider name
 -providerclass <providerclass>  provider class name
 -providerarg <arg>              provider argument
 -providerpath <pathlist>        provider classpath
 -v                              verbose output
 -protected                      password through protected mechanism

2. Enable TLS/SSL in Tomcat

To enable TLS/SSL in Tomcat:

  1. Open server/conf/server.xml.
  2. In the TLS/SSL port section (hint: search for 8443), add the keystore configuration. Replace <UUID> with the value found in services.index.
<Connector
   port="8443"
   protocol="HTTP/1.1"
   SSLEnabled="true"
   maxThreads="150"
   scheme="https"
   URIEncoding="UTF-8"
   secure="true" clientAuth="false"
   sslProtocol="TLS"
   maxHttpHeaderSize="10485760"
   maxPostSize="10485760"
   keystoreFile="<INCORTA_NODE_INSTALLATION_PATH>/IncortaNode/services/<UUID>/keystore.jks"
   keystorePass="incorta123"
   keyAlias="incorta" />

sslProtocol defines which versions the server can support. For example, sslProtocol="TLSv1.1, TLSv1.2" supports both protocols.

3. Test the TLS connection

You can use testssl.sh or Firefox to text the TLS Connection

Use testssl.sh to test the TLS connection

Use the open source tool testssl.sh to test the SSL connection.

Use Firefox to test the TLS connection

If you cannot use testssl.sh, you can use Firefox to identify which protocol and cipher the browser uses to connect to the server.

  • Open Firefox.
  • Access https://localhost:8443/incorta.
  • A security warning displays. Select Advanced.
  • Select Not Secure in the URL bar at the top. If you use a CA issued certificate, you may see a green lock icon instead of this warning.
  • Select Proceed to see the Incorta login page.
  • Select the lock icon next to URL bar, then select the arrow next to localhost.
  • Select More Information.
  • The details of the protocol and certificate information display.

4. Configure ciphers used for Tomcat

SSL is not good enough to secure Tomcat access. To prevent attackers to exploit TLS vulnerabilities, you must configure a cipher set to remove weak ciphers Tomcat uses.

5. Identify the ciphers JVM supports

Cut and Paste to Ciphers.java in your local env

import java.util.Iterator;
import java.util.Map;
import java.util.TreeMap;
import javax.net.ssl.SSLServerSocketFactory;

public class Ciphers
{
    public static void main(String[] args)
        throws Exception
    {
        SSLServerSocketFactory ssf = (SSLServerSocketFactory)SSLServerSocketFactory.getDefault();

        String[] defaultCiphers = ssf.getDefaultCipherSuites();
        String[] availableCiphers = ssf.getSupportedCipherSuites();

        TreeMap ciphers = new TreeMap();

        for(int i=0; i<availableCiphers.length; ++i )
            ciphers.put(availableCiphers[i], Boolean.FALSE);

        for(int i=0; i<defaultCiphers.length; ++i )
            ciphers.put(defaultCiphers[i], Boolean.TRUE);

        System.out.println("Default\tCipher");
        for(Iterator i = ciphers.entrySet().iterator(); i.hasNext(); ) {
            Map.Entry cipher=(Map.Entry)i.next();

            if(Boolean.TRUE.equals(cipher.getValue()))
                System.out.print('*');
            else
                System.out.print(' ');

            System.out.print('\t');
            System.out.println(cipher.getKey());
        }
    }
}

Ciphers with starting with * are supported by the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). Unsupported ciphers can be added by the JCE extension.

$ javac Ciphers.java
$ java Ciphers
Default Cipher
 SSL_DHE_DSS_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA
* SSL_DHE_DSS_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA
 SSL_DHE_DSS_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA
 SSL_DHE_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA
* SSL_DHE_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA
 SSL_DHE_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA
 SSL_DH_anon_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA
 SSL_DH_anon_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA
 SSL_DH_anon_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA
 SSL_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA
* SSL_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA
 SSL_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA
 SSL_RSA_WITH_NULL_MD5
 SSL_RSA_WITH_NULL_SHA
* TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
* TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256
* TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256
* TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
* TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256
* TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256
 TLS_DH_anon_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
 TLS_DH_anon_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256
 TLS_DH_anon_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256
* TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA
* TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
* TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256
* TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256
 TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_NULL_SHA
* TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA
* TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
* TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256
* TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256
 TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_NULL_SHA
* TLS_ECDH_ECDSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA
* TLS_ECDH_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
* TLS_ECDH_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256
* TLS_ECDH_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256
 TLS_ECDH_ECDSA_WITH_NULL_SHA
* TLS_ECDH_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA
* TLS_ECDH_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
* TLS_ECDH_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256
* TLS_ECDH_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256
 TLS_ECDH_RSA_WITH_NULL_SHA
 TLS_ECDH_anon_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA
 TLS_ECDH_anon_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
 TLS_ECDH_anon_WITH_NULL_SHA
* TLS_EMPTY_RENEGOTIATION_INFO_SCSV
 TLS_KRB5_EXPORT_WITH_DES_CBC_40_MD5
 TLS_KRB5_EXPORT_WITH_DES_CBC_40_SHA
 TLS_KRB5_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_MD5
 TLS_KRB5_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA
 TLS_KRB5_WITH_DES_CBC_MD5
 TLS_KRB5_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA
* TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
* TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256
* TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256
 TLS_RSA_WITH_NULL_SHA256

6. Configure ciphers in server.xml

There are various TLS Protocols. For more information, review the following table:

Name Protocol
SSLv2 SSL version 2 protocol
SSLv3 SSL version 3 protocol
TLSv1 TLS version 1.0 protocol (defined in RFC 2246)
TLSv1.1 TLS version 1.1 protocol (defined in RFC 4346)
TLSv1.2 TLS version 1.2 protocol (defined in RFC 5246)
SSLv2Hello Currently, the SSLv3, TLSv1, and TLSv1.1 protocols allow you to send SSLv3, TLSv1, and TLSv1.1 hellos encapsulated in an SSLv2 format hello. Some SSL/TLS servers do not support the v2 hello format and require that client hellos conform to the SSLv3 or TLSv1 client hello formats. The SSLv2Hello option controls the SSLv2 encapsulation. If SSLv2Hello is disabled on the client, then all outgoing messages will conform to the SSLv3/TLSv1 client hello format. If SSLv2Hello is disabled on the server, then all incoming messages must conform to the SSLv3/TLSv1 client hello format.

Follow these steps to configure the ciphers settings:

  • In the Cluster Management Console, stop the Analytics Service.
  • Backup the server.xml file in <INCORTA_NODE_INSTALLATION_PATH>/IncortaNode/services/<UUID>/conf/. Replace <UUID> with the value found in services.index.
  • Edit the server.xml file.
  • Manage which ciphers you use for Tomcat by adding a ciphers attribute to the connector section of server.xml.
  • Configure TLS protocols. You can remove sslProtocol and use the sslEnabledProtocols attribute to control SSL protocols.
  • Replace the values of keystoreFile, keystorePass, and keyAlias with your values. Also, replace <UUID> with the value found in services.index.
<Connector
   port="8443"
   protocol="HTTP/1.1"
   SSLEnabled="true"
   maxThreads="150"
   scheme="https"
   URIEncoding="UTF-8"
   secure="true" clientAuth="false"
   sslEnabledProtocols="TLSv1.1,TLSv1.2"
   maxHttpHeaderSize="10485760"
   maxPostSize="10485760"
   ciphers="TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA384,
TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA384,
TLS_ECDH_ECDSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA384,
TLS_ECDH_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA384,
TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA256,
TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA,
TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA,
TLS_ECDH_ECDSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA,
TLS_ECDH_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA,
TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA,
TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256,
TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256,
TLS_ECDH_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256,
TLS_ECDH_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256,
TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256,
TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA,
TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA,
TLS_ECDH_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA,
TLS_ECDH_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA,
TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA,
TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA,
TLS_ECDH_ECDSA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA,
TLS_ECDH_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA,
TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384,
TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256,
TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384,
TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384,
TLS_ECDH_ECDSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384,
TLS_ECDH_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384,
TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384,
TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256,
TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256,
TLS_ECDH_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256,
TLS_ECDH_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256,
TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256,  
TLS_EMPTY_RENEGOTIATION_INFO_SCSVF"
keystoreFile="<INCORTA_NODE_INSTALLATION_PATH>/IncortaNode/services/<UUID>/keystore.jks"
keystorePass="incorta123"
keyAlias="incorta" />

7. Enable the Secure Flag in context.xml

By default, Incorta does not set the secure flag on the JSESSIONID and XSRF-TOKEN cookies.

The Secure flag is a Tomcat configuration setting. The flag informs a web browser that a cookie should only be sent to the web server application using HTTPS. Even with HTTPS enabled, if the Secure flag is not set to true, a web browser will send the cookie value over HTTP.

The JSESSIONID cookie contains information that the Incorta Unified Data Analytics Platform uses for authentication and authorization. The XSRF_TOKEN cookie contains an encrypted CSRF token for client-side JavaScript calls and is useful in preventing cross-site request forgery attacks.

To enable the Secure Flag, follow these steps:

  • Backup the context.xml file in:

<INCORTA_NODE_INSTALLATION_PATH>/IncortaNode/services/<UUID>/conf/

Replace <UUID> with the value found in services.index.

  • Edit the context.xml file.

  • Add the following entity:

<Environment name="JndiSessionCookieConfigListener/secure" type="java.lang.String" override="false" value="true" />

  • Save your changes to the file.

8. Restart the Analytics Service

  • In the Cluster Management Console, start the Analytics Service.
  • In Chrome or Firefox, visit the Incorta Unified Data Analytics Platform sign in page. *All cookies are now being set with secure flag in response. Use Firefox to check which cipher is used for the connection. Weaker ciphers like 3DES ones should not be part of this list to avoid attacks (for example, the sweet32:birthday attack).
  • Sign in to Incorta.

For more information on how to secure Tomcat with TLS, see 15 Ways to Secure Apache Tomcat 8.